Carotid artery cross-clamping ischaemia during carotid endarterectomy (GEA) causes 5-30% of perioperative neurological deficits. This study was performed to identify possible clinical situations at higher risk for carotid cross-clamping ischaemia. 606 consecutive patients underwent CEA and were retrospectively studied; they were grouped according to risk factors, presence of associated vascular diseases, clinical pattern, angiographic and CT scan findings. Stump pressure measurement was provided in all patients, perioperative monitoring during CEA was performed by electroencephalogram (EEG) in 469 (77%) and somatosensorial evoked potentials (SEP) in 137 (23%). Local anaesthesia was used in 88 (14.5%) patients. Ischaemic changes during carotid cross-clamping were registered in 118 patients (19.5%). The incidence of cross-clamping ischaemia was then related to different factors; it affected 5.6% of asymptomatics, 25.4% of patients with fixed stroke and 38.5% of those with stenosis and contralateral occlusion. Angiographic and clinical correlation showed that patients with more severe lesions are mostly affected by clamping ischaemia (up to 55% in those with stroke and stenosis with contralateral occlusion). Age, hypertension and diabetes do not significantly affect incidence of ischaemic changes. Positive CT scan increased this risk; statistical relevance was found in regard to patients with unilateral or bilateral stenosis and in those with transient ischaemic attacks. A higher risk can be expected for subjects with more severe clinical and instrumental findings, even if no patients can be considered completely at risk or risk free. Perioperative monitoring is always mandatory and is of great importance in detecting ischaemic changes and preventing cerebral damage using a temporary intraluminal shunt.
Pistolese G.R., I.A. (1993). Cerebral haemodynamics during carotid cross-clamping. In European Journal of Vascular Surgery (pp.33-38). LONDON : W B SAUNDERS CO LTD.
|Autori:||Pistolese G.R., Ippoliti A., Appolloni A., Ronchey S., Faraglia V.|
|Titolo:||Cerebral haemodynamics during carotid cross-clamping|
|Nome del convegno:||Carotid Surgery|
|Data di pubblicazione:||1993|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/22 - Chirurgia Vascolare|
|Tipologia:||Intervento a convegno|
|Citazione:||Pistolese G.R., I.A. (1993). Cerebral haemodynamics during carotid cross-clamping. In European Journal of Vascular Surgery (pp.33-38). LONDON : W B SAUNDERS CO LTD.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||02 - Intervento a convegno|