Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic alterations mostly related to visceral adiposity, which in turn promotes glucose intolerance and a chronic systemic inflammatory state, characterized by immune cell infiltration. Such immune system activation increases the risk of severe disease subsequent to viral infections. Strong correlations between elevated body mass index (BMI), type-2-diabetes and increased risk of hospitalization after pandemic influenza H1N1 infection have been described. Similarly, a correlation between elevated blood glucose level and SARS-CoV-2 infection severity and mortality has been described, indicating MetS as an important predictor of clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Adipose secretome, including two of the most abundant and well-studied adipokines, leptin and interleukin-6, is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and obesity-related low-grade inflammation. Similarly, skeletal muscle hormones-called myokines-released in response to physical exercise affect both metabolic homeostasis and immune system function. Of note, several circulating hormones originate from both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle and display different functions, depending on the metabolic context. This review aims to summarize recent data in the field of exercise immunology, investigating the acute and chronic effects of exercise on myokines release and immune system function.

Lombardo, M., Feraco, A., Bellia, C., Prisco, L., D'Ippolito, I., Padua, E., et al. (2022). Influence of Nutritional Status and Physical Exercise on Immune Response in Metabolic Syndrome. NUTRIENTS, 14(10), 2054 [10.3390/nu14102054].

Influence of Nutritional Status and Physical Exercise on Immune Response in Metabolic Syndrome

Feraco, Alessandra;Padua, Elvira;Lauro, Davide;Caprio, Massimiliano;Bellia, Alfonso
2022

Abstract

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic alterations mostly related to visceral adiposity, which in turn promotes glucose intolerance and a chronic systemic inflammatory state, characterized by immune cell infiltration. Such immune system activation increases the risk of severe disease subsequent to viral infections. Strong correlations between elevated body mass index (BMI), type-2-diabetes and increased risk of hospitalization after pandemic influenza H1N1 infection have been described. Similarly, a correlation between elevated blood glucose level and SARS-CoV-2 infection severity and mortality has been described, indicating MetS as an important predictor of clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Adipose secretome, including two of the most abundant and well-studied adipokines, leptin and interleukin-6, is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and obesity-related low-grade inflammation. Similarly, skeletal muscle hormones-called myokines-released in response to physical exercise affect both metabolic homeostasis and immune system function. Of note, several circulating hormones originate from both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle and display different functions, depending on the metabolic context. This review aims to summarize recent data in the field of exercise immunology, investigating the acute and chronic effects of exercise on myokines release and immune system function.
Pubblicato
Rilevanza internazionale
Articolo
Esperti anonimi
Settore MED/13
English
Con Impact Factor ISI
COVID-19
adipokines
adipose tissue
aging
myokines
nutrition
obesity
physical activity
skeletal muscle
Humans
Immunity
Inflammation
Nutritional Status
COVID-19
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Metabolic Syndrome
Lombardo, M., Feraco, A., Bellia, C., Prisco, L., D'Ippolito, I., Padua, E., et al. (2022). Influence of Nutritional Status and Physical Exercise on Immune Response in Metabolic Syndrome. NUTRIENTS, 14(10), 2054 [10.3390/nu14102054].
Lombardo, M; Feraco, A; Bellia, C; Prisco, L; D'Ippolito, I; Padua, E; Storz, Ma; Lauro, D; Caprio, M; Bellia, A
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2108/305902
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