Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus causing vesicular oral or genital skin lesions, meningitis and other diseases particularly harmful in immunocompromised individuals. To comprehensively investigate the complex interaction between HSV-1 and its host we combined two genome-scale screens for host factors (HFs) involved in virus replication. A yeast two-hybrid screen for protein interactions and a RNA interference (RNAi) screen with a druggable genome small interfering RNA (siRNA) library confirmed existing and identified novel HFs which functionally influence HSV-1 infection. Bioinformatic analyses found the 358 HFs were enriched for several pathways and multi-protein complexes. Of particular interest was the identification of Med23 as a strongly anti-viral component of the largely pro-viral Mediator complex, which links specific transcription factors to RNA polymerase II. The anti-viral effect of Med23 on HSV-1 replication was confirmed in gain-of-function gene overexpression experiments, and this inhibitory effect was specific to HSV-1, as a range of other viruses including Vaccinia virus and Semliki Forest virus were unaffected by Med23 depletion. We found Med23 significantly upregulated expression of the type III interferon family (IFN-λ) at the mRNA and protein level by directly interacting with the transcription factor IRF7. The synergistic effect of Med23 and IRF7 on IFN-λ induction suggests this is the major transcription factor for IFN-λ expression. Genotypic analysis of patients suffering recurrent orofacial HSV-1 outbreaks, previously shown to be deficient in IFN-λ secretion, found a significant correlation with a single nucleotide polymorphism in the IFN-λ3 (IL28b) promoter strongly linked to Hepatitis C disease and treatment outcome. This paper describes a link between Med23 and IFN-λ, provides evidence for the crucial role of IFN-λ in HSV-1 immune control, and highlights the power of integrative genome-scale approaches to identify HFs critical for disease progression and outcome.
Griffiths, S.J., Koegl, M., Boutell, C., Zenner, H.L., Crump, C.M., Pica, F., et al. (2013). A Systematic analysis of host factors reveals a Med23-interferon-λ regulatory axis against herpes simplex virus type 1 replication. PLOS PATHOGENS.
|Tipologia:||Articolo su rivista|
|Citazione:||Griffiths, S.J., Koegl, M., Boutell, C., Zenner, H.L., Crump, C.M., Pica, F., et al. (2013). A Systematic analysis of host factors reveals a Med23-interferon-λ regulatory axis against herpes simplex virus type 1 replication. PLOS PATHOGENS.|
|IF:||Con Impact Factor ISI|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/17 - Malattie Infettive|
|Revisione (peer review):||Esperti anonimi|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003514|
|Stato di pubblicazione:||Pubblicato|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2013|
|Titolo:||A Systematic analysis of host factors reveals a Med23-interferon-λ regulatory axis against herpes simplex virus type 1 replication|
|Autori:||Griffiths, SJ; Koegl, M; Boutell, C; Zenner, HL; Crump, CM; Pica, F; Gonzalez, O; Friedel, CC; Barry, G; Martin, K; Craigon, MH; Chen, R; Kaza, LN; Fossum, E; Fazakerley, JK; Efstathiou, S; Volpi, A; Zimmer, R; Ghazal, P; Haas, J|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su rivista|