A maximum parsimony tree of 21 complete mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA) sequences belonging to haplogroup X and the survey of the haplogroup-associated polymorphisms in 13,589 mtDNAs from Eurasia and Africa revealed that haplogroup X is subdivided into two major branches, here defined as "X1" and "X2." The first is restricted to the populations of North and East Africa and the Near East, whereas X2 encompasses all X mtDNAs from Europe, western and Central Asia, Siberia, and the great majority of the Near East, as well as some North African samples. Subhaplogroup X1 diversity indicates an early coalescence time, whereas X2 has apparently undergone a more recent population expansion in Eurasia, most likely around or after the last glacial maximum. It is notable that X2 includes the two complete Native American X sequences that constitute the distinctive X2a clade, a clade that lacks close relatives in the entire Old World, including Siberia. The position of X2a in the phylogenetic tree suggests an early split from the other X2 clades, likely at the very beginning of their expansion and spread from the Near East.

Reidla, M., Kivisild, T., Metspalu, E., Kaldma, K., Tambets, K., Tolk, H.V., et al. (2003). Origin and diffusion of mtDNA haplogroup X. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS, 73(5), 1178-1190 [10.1086/379380].

Origin and diffusion of mtDNA haplogroup X

RICKARDS, OLGA;
2003

Abstract

A maximum parsimony tree of 21 complete mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA) sequences belonging to haplogroup X and the survey of the haplogroup-associated polymorphisms in 13,589 mtDNAs from Eurasia and Africa revealed that haplogroup X is subdivided into two major branches, here defined as "X1" and "X2." The first is restricted to the populations of North and East Africa and the Near East, whereas X2 encompasses all X mtDNAs from Europe, western and Central Asia, Siberia, and the great majority of the Near East, as well as some North African samples. Subhaplogroup X1 diversity indicates an early coalescence time, whereas X2 has apparently undergone a more recent population expansion in Eurasia, most likely around or after the last glacial maximum. It is notable that X2 includes the two complete Native American X sequences that constitute the distinctive X2a clade, a clade that lacks close relatives in the entire Old World, including Siberia. The position of X2a in the phylogenetic tree suggests an early split from the other X2 clades, likely at the very beginning of their expansion and spread from the Near East.
Pubblicato
Rilevanza internazionale
Articolo
Esperti anonimi
Settore BIO/08
Settore BIO/18 - Genetica
English
Con Impact Factor ISI
mitochondrial DNA; Africa; article; Asia; biogenesis; evolution; genetic polymorphism; haplotype; health survey; human; parsimony analysis; population genetics; priority journal; Russian Federation; X chromosome linkage; Africa; Asia; DNA, Mitochondrial; Emigration and Immigration; Europe; Haplotypes; Humans; Indians, North American; Phylogeny; Polymorphism, Genetic; Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid; Variation (Genetics)
Reidla, M., Kivisild, T., Metspalu, E., Kaldma, K., Tambets, K., Tolk, H.V., et al. (2003). Origin and diffusion of mtDNA haplogroup X. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS, 73(5), 1178-1190 [10.1086/379380].
Reidla, M; Kivisild, T; Metspalu, E; Kaldma, K; Tambets, K; Tolk, H; Parik, J; Loogvali, E; Derenko, M; Malyarchuk, B; Bermisheva, M; Zhadanov, S; Pennarun, E; Gubina, M; Golubenko, M; Damba, L; Fedorova, S; Gusar, V; Grechanina, E; Mikerezi, I; Moisan, J; Chaventre, A; Khusnutdinova, E; Osipova, L; Stepanov, V; Voevoda, M; Achilli, A; Rengo, C; Rickards, O; De Stefano, G; Papiha, S; Beckman, L; Janicijevic, B; Rudan, P; Anagnou, N; Michalodimitrakis, E; Koziel, S; Usanga, E; Geberhiwot, T; Herrnstadt, C; Howell, N; Torroni, A; Villems, R
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2108/64968
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