Objectives: The long-term prognosis of injuries to the distal physis of forearm bones, including complications such as radioulnar length discrepancy and styloid nonunion, has not been extensively studied. Reliable radiographic prognostic criteria to predict physeal disturbance at trauma are also lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate both issues. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: University hospital. Patients/Participants: One hundred sixty-three lesions to the distal physis of the forearm bones in 157 patients were available for a long-term follow-up. Seventy-seven injuries of the distal radial physis were radiographically isolated, 54 were associated with a fracture of the ulnar styloid, and 26 with a fracture of the distal ulnar metaphysis. Of the six injuries of the distal ulnar physis, five were associated with a fracture of the distal radial metaphysis, and one was an isolated injury of the distal ulnar physis. Intervention: Treatment consisted of wrist immobilization in a long-arm plaster cast for 6 weeks. Dorsal or volar displacement was reduced using general anesthesia. Main Outcome Measurements: All patients had both clinical and radiographic evaluation, with an average follow-up of 25.5 years (range 14-46 years). The average age of the patients at injury was 11.6 years (range 5-17 years), whereas their average age at follow-up was 35.5 years (range 22-56 years). Both the Salter and Harris and the Ogden classifications were used to classify physeal injuries. Results: According to Salter and Harris, of the 157 radial lesions, 18 were type 1 and 139 type 2. According to Ogden, 14 were type 1A, 4 type 1C, 84 type 2A, 13 type 2B, 17 type 2C, and 25 type 2D. Of the 6 ulnar lesions, 2 were Salter and Harris type 1 (Ogden type 1A), 3 type 2 (Ogden type 2A), and 1 type 4 (Ogden type 4A). Fifty-four radiographically evident fractures of the ulnar styloid associated with injuries of the distal radial physis were classified as Ogden type 7A. At follow-up, all of our patients were fully asymptomatic, except for those who had forearm bone growth failure of more than 1 cm. Shortening of the previously injured forearm bones ranging from 1 to 6.5 cm was observed in 2 open and subsequently infected lesions as well as in 5 uncomplicated lesions of the 157 distal radial physeal injuries (4.4%), and in 3 of the 6 distal ulnar physeal injuries (50%). Shortening of 1 cm or more was observed in the uncomplicated lesions of radial physeal injury with Ogden type 1C, 2B, and 2D lesions, and in ulnar physeal injuries Ogden type 1A, 2A, and 4A. Thirty-eight additional patients had radioulnar length discrepancy that ranged from 2 to 9 mm, and 53 patients had styloid nonunion, but all of them were asymptomatic. Conclusions: None of the patients reviewed at follow-up, including those with radioulnar length discrepancy of less than 1 cm and those with styloid nonunion, complained of any symptom related to their previous injury, not even those engaged in heavy manual labor. Of the 10 patients with either radial or ulnar shortening of more than 1 cm, only 2 with radial growth arrest and marked radioulnar length discrepancy had severe functional problems. Growth disturbances of more than 1 cm following distal radial physeal injury occurred only in Ogden type 1C, 2B, and 2D lesions, whereas in distal ulnar physeal injuries, growth disturbances occurred regardless of the Ogden classification type.
Cannata, G., De Maio, F., Mancini, F., & Ippolito, E. (2003). Physeal fractures of the distal radius and ulna: long-term prognosis. JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA, 17(3), 172-180.
|Tipologia:||Articolo su rivista|
|Citazione:||Cannata, G., De Maio, F., Mancini, F., & Ippolito, E. (2003). Physeal fractures of the distal radius and ulna: long-term prognosis. JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA, 17(3), 172-180.|
|IF:||Con Impact Factor ISI|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/33 - Malattie Apparato Locomotore|
Settore MED/34 - Medicina Fisica e Riabilitativa
|Revisione (peer review):||Sì, ma tipo non specificato|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005131-200303000-00002|
|Stato di pubblicazione:||Pubblicato|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2003|
|Titolo:||Physeal fractures of the distal radius and ulna: long-term prognosis|
|Autori:||Cannata, G; De Maio, F; Mancini, F; Ippolito, E|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su rivista|