The binding of lipids (free fatty acids as well as acidic phospholipids) to cytochrome c (cyt c) induces conformational changes and partial unfolding of the protein, strongly influencing cyt c oxidase/peroxidase activity. ATP is unique among the nucleotides in being able to turn non-native states of cyt c back to the native conformation. The peroxidase activity acquired by lipid-bound cyt c turns out to be very critical in the early stages of apoptosis. Nucleotide specificity is observed for apoptosome formation and caspase activation, the cleavage occurring only in the presence of dATP or ATP. In this study, we demonstrate the connection between peroxidase activity and oleic acid-induced conformational transitions of cyt c and show how ATP is capable of modulating such interplay. By NMR measurement, we have demonstrated that ATP interacts with a site (S1) formed by K88, R91, and E62 and such interaction was weakened by mutation of E62, suggesting the selective role in the interaction played by the base moiety. Interestingly, the interactions of ATP and GTP with cyt c are significantly different at low nucleotide concentrations, with GTP being less effective in perturbing the S1 site and in eliciting apoptotic activity. To gain insights into the structural features of cyt c required for its pro-apoptotic activity and to demonstrate a regulatory role for ATP (compared to the effect of GTP), we have performed experiments on cell lysates by using cyt c proteins mutated on amino acid residues that, as suggested by NMR measurements, belong to S1. Thus, we provide evidence that ATP acts as an allosteric effector, regulating structural transitions among different conformations and different oxidation states of cyt c, which are endowed with apoptotic activity or not. On this basis, we suggest a previously unrecognized role for ATP binding to cyt c at low millimolar concentrations in the cytosol, beyond the known regulatory role during the oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria.
Patriarca, A., Eliseo, T., Sinibaldi, F., Piro, M., Melis, R., Paci, M., et al. (2009). ATP acts as a regulatory effector in modulating structural transitions of cytochrome c: implications for apoptotic activity. BIOCHEMISTRY, 48(15), 3279-3287.
|Tipologia:||Articolo su rivista|
|Citazione:||Patriarca, A., Eliseo, T., Sinibaldi, F., Piro, M., Melis, R., Paci, M., et al. (2009). ATP acts as a regulatory effector in modulating structural transitions of cytochrome c: implications for apoptotic activity. BIOCHEMISTRY, 48(15), 3279-3287.|
|IF:||Con Impact Factor ISI|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/10|
|Revisione (peer review):||Sì, ma tipo non specificato|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi801837e|
|Stato di pubblicazione:||Pubblicato|
|Data di pubblicazione:||21-apr-2009|
|Titolo:||ATP acts as a regulatory effector in modulating structural transitions of cytochrome c: implications for apoptotic activity|
|Autori:||Patriarca, A; Eliseo, T; Sinibaldi, F; Piro, M; Melis, R; Paci, M; Cicero, D; Polticelli, F; Santucci, R; Fiorucci, L|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su rivista|