Cyclopaldic acid is one of the main phytotoxic metabolites produced by fungal pathogens of the genus Seiridium, causal agents, among others, of the canker disease of plants of the Cupressaceae family. Previous studies showed that the metabolite can partially reproduce the symptoms of the infection and that it is toxic to different plant species, thereby proving to be a non-specific phytotoxin. Despite the remarkable biological effects of the compound, which revealed also insecticidal, fungicidal and herbicidal properties, information about its mode of action is still lacking. In this study, we investigated the effects of cyclopaldic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana plants and protoplasts, in order to get information about subcellular targets and mechanism of action. Results of biochemical assays showed that cyclopaldic acid induced leaf chlorosis, ion leakage, membrane-lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide production, inhibited root proton extrusion in vivo and plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity in vitro. qRT-PCR experiments demonstrated that the toxin elicited the transcription of key regulators of the immune response to necrotrophic fungi, of hormone biosynthesis, as well as of genes involved in senescence and programmed cell death. Confocal microscopy analysis of protoplasts allowed to address the question of subcellular targets of the toxin. Cyclopaldic acid targeted the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, inducing depolarization of the transmembrane potential, mitochondria, disrupting the mitochondrial network and eliciting overproduction of reactive oxygen species, and vacuole, determining tonoplast disgregation and induction of vacuole-mediated programmed cell death and autophagy.

Samperna, S., Masi, M., Vurro, M., Evidente, A., Marra, M. (2022). Cyclopaldic Acid, the Main Phytotoxic Metabolite of Diplodia cupressi, Induces Programmed Cell Death and Autophagy in Arabidopsis thaliana. TOXINS, 14(7) [10.3390/toxins14070474].

Cyclopaldic Acid, the Main Phytotoxic Metabolite of Diplodia cupressi, Induces Programmed Cell Death and Autophagy in Arabidopsis thaliana

Samperna, Simone;Marra, Mauro
2022-07-11

Abstract

Cyclopaldic acid is one of the main phytotoxic metabolites produced by fungal pathogens of the genus Seiridium, causal agents, among others, of the canker disease of plants of the Cupressaceae family. Previous studies showed that the metabolite can partially reproduce the symptoms of the infection and that it is toxic to different plant species, thereby proving to be a non-specific phytotoxin. Despite the remarkable biological effects of the compound, which revealed also insecticidal, fungicidal and herbicidal properties, information about its mode of action is still lacking. In this study, we investigated the effects of cyclopaldic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana plants and protoplasts, in order to get information about subcellular targets and mechanism of action. Results of biochemical assays showed that cyclopaldic acid induced leaf chlorosis, ion leakage, membrane-lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide production, inhibited root proton extrusion in vivo and plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity in vitro. qRT-PCR experiments demonstrated that the toxin elicited the transcription of key regulators of the immune response to necrotrophic fungi, of hormone biosynthesis, as well as of genes involved in senescence and programmed cell death. Confocal microscopy analysis of protoplasts allowed to address the question of subcellular targets of the toxin. Cyclopaldic acid targeted the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, inducing depolarization of the transmembrane potential, mitochondria, disrupting the mitochondrial network and eliciting overproduction of reactive oxygen species, and vacuole, determining tonoplast disgregation and induction of vacuole-mediated programmed cell death and autophagy.
11-lug-2022
Pubblicato
Rilevanza internazionale
Articolo
Esperti anonimi
Settore BIO/04 - FISIOLOGIA VEGETALE
Settore BIO/15 - Biologia Farmaceutica
Settore CHIM/11 - Chimica e Biotecnologia delle Fermentazioni
English
Con Impact Factor ISI
Arabidopsis thaliana; Seiridium cupressi; autophagy; cyclopaldic acid; necrotrophic fungi; phytotoxins; plant immunity; plasma membrane H+-ATPase; vacuole-mediated PCD
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9325063/
Samperna, S., Masi, M., Vurro, M., Evidente, A., Marra, M. (2022). Cyclopaldic Acid, the Main Phytotoxic Metabolite of Diplodia cupressi, Induces Programmed Cell Death and Autophagy in Arabidopsis thaliana. TOXINS, 14(7) [10.3390/toxins14070474].
Samperna, S; Masi, M; Vurro, M; Evidente, A; Marra, M
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2108/311722
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