The aim of this study was to assess the single and synergistic effects of fenbendazole (Fenb) and metronidazole (Metro) for the treatment of Giardia duodenalis infection in different species of non-human primates (NHPs) housed in a zoological garden of southern Italy. Moreover, the study also aimed to better define the circulation of G. duodenalis zoonotic assemblages in NHP and the potential occurrence of zoonotic transmission between the staff from the zoo and NHP. Briefly, six species that belonged to four families (Lemuridae, Cercopithecidae, Atelidae, and Hylobatidae) of NHP and housed in six cages (CG) were identified as Giardia positive and divided into two groups. Group F (N = 16 animals) was treated with Fenb (50 mg/kg, every 24 h for 5 consecutive days) and Group M (N = 7 animals) was treated with Metro (25 mg/kg, two times a day for 5 consecutive days). After the first round of therapy, all the animals were retreated for 5 days by inverting the drugs in each group. On each sampling day [study days (SDs) 3-24], the samples were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts using the FLOTAC technique. Multiple fecal tests for the antigen detection of Giardia, such as rapid ELISA and direct immunofluorescence (IFA), were performed at each sampling point only on samples that resulted in positive for Giardia cysts with FLOTAC. The efficacy of Fenb ranged from 30 to 67% and for Metro ranged from 82 to 96%. The results showed the synergistic effects of Metro and Fenb (98-100%) over the combination of Fenb and Metro (52-90%) against the infection by Giardia in NHPs. The overall k agreement between FLOTAC and IFA was reached 0.858 (p = 0.0001). In contrast, all the samples had a negative antigen result when using ELISA. At molecular analysis, six samples were confirmed positive for Giardia by nested PCR. Only two positive samples were successfully sequenced that showed 100% of identity with assemblage B. All the samples from the humans included in the study resulted in negative for Giardia cysts. Overall, the study emphasizes the need for regular monitoring of Giardia infections in NHP housed in zoos by traditional diagnostic tools combined with molecular characterization of the parasite.

Capasso, M., Ciuca, L., Procesi, I.g., Zinno, F., Berrilli, F., Cringoli, G., et al. (2022). Single and Synergistic Effects of Fenbendazole and Metronidazole Against Subclinical Infection by Giardia duodenalis in Non-Human Primates in a Zoological Garden in Southern Italy. FRONTIERS IN VETERINARY SCIENCE, 9, 929443 [10.3389/fvets.2022.929443].

Single and Synergistic Effects of Fenbendazole and Metronidazole Against Subclinical Infection by Giardia duodenalis in Non-Human Primates in a Zoological Garden in Southern Italy

Berrilli, Federica;
2022

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the single and synergistic effects of fenbendazole (Fenb) and metronidazole (Metro) for the treatment of Giardia duodenalis infection in different species of non-human primates (NHPs) housed in a zoological garden of southern Italy. Moreover, the study also aimed to better define the circulation of G. duodenalis zoonotic assemblages in NHP and the potential occurrence of zoonotic transmission between the staff from the zoo and NHP. Briefly, six species that belonged to four families (Lemuridae, Cercopithecidae, Atelidae, and Hylobatidae) of NHP and housed in six cages (CG) were identified as Giardia positive and divided into two groups. Group F (N = 16 animals) was treated with Fenb (50 mg/kg, every 24 h for 5 consecutive days) and Group M (N = 7 animals) was treated with Metro (25 mg/kg, two times a day for 5 consecutive days). After the first round of therapy, all the animals were retreated for 5 days by inverting the drugs in each group. On each sampling day [study days (SDs) 3-24], the samples were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts using the FLOTAC technique. Multiple fecal tests for the antigen detection of Giardia, such as rapid ELISA and direct immunofluorescence (IFA), were performed at each sampling point only on samples that resulted in positive for Giardia cysts with FLOTAC. The efficacy of Fenb ranged from 30 to 67% and for Metro ranged from 82 to 96%. The results showed the synergistic effects of Metro and Fenb (98-100%) over the combination of Fenb and Metro (52-90%) against the infection by Giardia in NHPs. The overall k agreement between FLOTAC and IFA was reached 0.858 (p = 0.0001). In contrast, all the samples had a negative antigen result when using ELISA. At molecular analysis, six samples were confirmed positive for Giardia by nested PCR. Only two positive samples were successfully sequenced that showed 100% of identity with assemblage B. All the samples from the humans included in the study resulted in negative for Giardia cysts. Overall, the study emphasizes the need for regular monitoring of Giardia infections in NHP housed in zoos by traditional diagnostic tools combined with molecular characterization of the parasite.
Pubblicato
Rilevanza internazionale
Articolo
Esperti anonimi
Settore VET/06
English
Con Impact Factor ISI
non-human primates; metronidazole; fenbendazole; zoos; Giardia duodenalis
Capasso, M., Ciuca, L., Procesi, I.g., Zinno, F., Berrilli, F., Cringoli, G., et al. (2022). Single and Synergistic Effects of Fenbendazole and Metronidazole Against Subclinical Infection by Giardia duodenalis in Non-Human Primates in a Zoological Garden in Southern Italy. FRONTIERS IN VETERINARY SCIENCE, 9, 929443 [10.3389/fvets.2022.929443].
Capasso, M; Ciuca, L; Procesi, Ig; Zinno, F; Berrilli, F; Cringoli, G; Rinaldi, L
Articolo su rivista
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Capasso et al., 2022 giardia Rinaldi.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Versione Editoriale (PDF)
Licenza: Non specificato
Dimensione 228.53 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
228.53 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2108/306049
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact