The chronic infection established by the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) produces serious CD4+ T cell immunodeficiency despite the decrease in HIV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) levels and the raised life expectancy of people living with HIV-1 (PLWH) through treatment with combined antiretroviral therapies (cART). HIV-1 enters the central nervous system (CNS), where perivascular macrophages and microglia are infected. Serious neurodegenerative symptoms related to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are produced by infection of the CNS. Despite advances in the treatment of this infection, HAND significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality globally. The pathogenesis and the role of inflammation in HAND are still incompletely understood. Principally, growing evidence shows that the CNS is an anatomical reservoir for viral infection and replication, and that its compartmentalization can trigger the evolution of neurological damage and thus make virus eradication more difficult. In this review, important concepts for understanding HAND and neuropathogenesis as well as the viral proteins involved in the CNS as an anatomical reservoir for HIV infection are discussed. In addition, an overview of the recent advancements towards therapeutic strategies for the treatment of HAND is presented. Further neurological research is needed to address neurodegenerative difficulties in people living with HIV, specifically regarding CNS viral reservoirs and their effects on eradication.

Borrajo, A., Svicher, V., Salpini, R., Pellegrino, M., Aquaro, S. (2021). Crucial Role of Central Nervous System as a Viral Anatomical Compartment for HIV-1 Infection. MICROORGANISMS, 9(12) [10.3390/microorganisms9122537].

Crucial Role of Central Nervous System as a Viral Anatomical Compartment for HIV-1 Infection

Svicher, Valentina;Salpini, Romina;Aquaro, Stefano
2021-12-08

Abstract

The chronic infection established by the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) produces serious CD4+ T cell immunodeficiency despite the decrease in HIV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) levels and the raised life expectancy of people living with HIV-1 (PLWH) through treatment with combined antiretroviral therapies (cART). HIV-1 enters the central nervous system (CNS), where perivascular macrophages and microglia are infected. Serious neurodegenerative symptoms related to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are produced by infection of the CNS. Despite advances in the treatment of this infection, HAND significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality globally. The pathogenesis and the role of inflammation in HAND are still incompletely understood. Principally, growing evidence shows that the CNS is an anatomical reservoir for viral infection and replication, and that its compartmentalization can trigger the evolution of neurological damage and thus make virus eradication more difficult. In this review, important concepts for understanding HAND and neuropathogenesis as well as the viral proteins involved in the CNS as an anatomical reservoir for HIV infection are discussed. In addition, an overview of the recent advancements towards therapeutic strategies for the treatment of HAND is presented. Further neurological research is needed to address neurodegenerative difficulties in people living with HIV, specifically regarding CNS viral reservoirs and their effects on eradication.
Pubblicato
Rilevanza internazionale
Articolo
Sì, ma tipo non specificato
Settore MED/07
English
HAND
central nervous system
human immunodeficiency virus
reservoir
Borrajo, A., Svicher, V., Salpini, R., Pellegrino, M., Aquaro, S. (2021). Crucial Role of Central Nervous System as a Viral Anatomical Compartment for HIV-1 Infection. MICROORGANISMS, 9(12) [10.3390/microorganisms9122537].
Borrajo, A; Svicher, V; Salpini, R; Pellegrino, M; Aquaro, S
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2108/304357
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