Mycobacterium abscessus is the etiological agent of severe pulmonary infections in vulnerable patients, such as those with cystic fibrosis (CF), where it represents a relevant cause of morbidity and mortality. Treatment of pulmonary infections caused by M. abscessus remains extremely difficult, as this species is resistant to most classes of antibiotics, including macrolides, aminoglycosides, rifamycins, tetracyclines, and β-lactams. Here, we show that apoptotic body like liposomes loaded with phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (ABL/PI5P) enhance the antimycobacterial response, both in macrophages from healthy donors exposed to pharmacological inhibition of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and in macrophages from CF patients, by enhancing phagosome acidification and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The treatment with liposomes of wild-type as well as CF mice, intratracheally infected with M. abscessus, resulted in about a 2-log reduction of pulmonary mycobacterial burden and a significant reduction of macrophages and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Finally, the combination treatment with ABL/PI5P and amikacin, to specifically target intracellular and extracellular bacilli, resulted in a further significant reduction of both pulmonary mycobacterial burden and inflammatory response in comparison with the single treatments. These results offer the conceptual basis for a novel therapeutic regimen based on antibiotic and bioactive liposomes, used as a combined host- and pathogen-directed therapeutic strategy, aimed at the control of M. abscessus infection, and of related immunopathogenic responses, for which therapeutic options are still limited. IMPORTANCE Mycobacterium abscessus is an opportunistic pathogen intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics, frequently linked to chronic pulmonary infections, and representing a relevant cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients, such as those affected by cystic fibrosis. M. abscessus-caused pulmonary infection treatment is extremely difficult due to its high toxicity and long-lasting regimen with life-impairing side effects and the scarce availability of new antibiotics approved for human use. In this context, there is an urgent need for the development of an alternative therapeutic strategy that aims at improving the current management of patients affected by chronic M. abscessus infections. Our data support the therapeutic value of a combined host- and pathogen-directed therapy as a promising approach, as an alternative to single treatments, to simultaneously target intracellular and extracellular pathogens and improve the clinical management of patients infected with multidrug-resistant pathogens such as M. abscessus.

Poerio, N., Riva, C., Olimpieri, T., Rossi, M., Lore, N.i., de Santis, F., et al. (2022). Combined host- and pathogen-directed therapy for the control of mycobacterium abscessus infection. MICROBIOLOGY SPECTRUM, 10(1) [10.1128/spectrum.02546-21].

Combined host- and pathogen-directed therapy for the control of mycobacterium abscessus infection

Poerio N.;D'Andrea M. M.;Fraziano M.
2022-01-01

Abstract

Mycobacterium abscessus is the etiological agent of severe pulmonary infections in vulnerable patients, such as those with cystic fibrosis (CF), where it represents a relevant cause of morbidity and mortality. Treatment of pulmonary infections caused by M. abscessus remains extremely difficult, as this species is resistant to most classes of antibiotics, including macrolides, aminoglycosides, rifamycins, tetracyclines, and β-lactams. Here, we show that apoptotic body like liposomes loaded with phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (ABL/PI5P) enhance the antimycobacterial response, both in macrophages from healthy donors exposed to pharmacological inhibition of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and in macrophages from CF patients, by enhancing phagosome acidification and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The treatment with liposomes of wild-type as well as CF mice, intratracheally infected with M. abscessus, resulted in about a 2-log reduction of pulmonary mycobacterial burden and a significant reduction of macrophages and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Finally, the combination treatment with ABL/PI5P and amikacin, to specifically target intracellular and extracellular bacilli, resulted in a further significant reduction of both pulmonary mycobacterial burden and inflammatory response in comparison with the single treatments. These results offer the conceptual basis for a novel therapeutic regimen based on antibiotic and bioactive liposomes, used as a combined host- and pathogen-directed therapeutic strategy, aimed at the control of M. abscessus infection, and of related immunopathogenic responses, for which therapeutic options are still limited. IMPORTANCE Mycobacterium abscessus is an opportunistic pathogen intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics, frequently linked to chronic pulmonary infections, and representing a relevant cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients, such as those affected by cystic fibrosis. M. abscessus-caused pulmonary infection treatment is extremely difficult due to its high toxicity and long-lasting regimen with life-impairing side effects and the scarce availability of new antibiotics approved for human use. In this context, there is an urgent need for the development of an alternative therapeutic strategy that aims at improving the current management of patients affected by chronic M. abscessus infections. Our data support the therapeutic value of a combined host- and pathogen-directed therapy as a promising approach, as an alternative to single treatments, to simultaneously target intracellular and extracellular pathogens and improve the clinical management of patients infected with multidrug-resistant pathogens such as M. abscessus.
Pubblicato
Rilevanza internazionale
Articolo
Esperti anonimi
Settore BIO/19
English
chronic infection
cystic fibrosis
host-pathogen interactions
infectious disease
innate immunity
liposomes
nontuberculous mycobacteria
pulmonary infection
Poerio, N., Riva, C., Olimpieri, T., Rossi, M., Lore, N.i., de Santis, F., et al. (2022). Combined host- and pathogen-directed therapy for the control of mycobacterium abscessus infection. MICROBIOLOGY SPECTRUM, 10(1) [10.1128/spectrum.02546-21].
Poerio, N; Riva, C; Olimpieri, T; Rossi, M; Lore, Ni; de Santis, F; de Angelis, Lh; Ciciriello, F; D'Andrea, Mm; Lucidi, V; Cirillo, Dm; Fraziano, M
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2108/288087
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