Cholemic nephropathy (CN) is a recognized cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with severe hyperbilirubinemia (sHyb) and jaundice. Pathophysiological mechanisms of CN are not completely understood, but it seems caused both by direct toxicity of cholephiles and bile casts formation in nephrons enhanced by prolonged exposure to sHyb, particularly in the presence of promoting factors, as highlighted by a literature reviewed and by personal experience. The aim of our update is to retrace CN in its pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment, underlining the role of sHyb, promoting factors, and CN-AKI diagnostic criteria in the different clinical settings associated with this often-concealed disease. Our purpose is to focus on clinical manifestation of CN, exploring the possible transition to CKD. Cholemic nephropathy is an overlooked clinical entity that enters differential diagnosis with other causes of AKI. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential because renal injury could be fully reversible as rapidly as bilirubin levels are reduced. In conclusion, our proposal is to introduce an alert for considering CN in diagnostic and prognostic scores that include bilirubin and/or creatinine with acute renal involvement, with the aim of early diagnosis and treatment of sHyb to reduce the burden on renal outcome.
Tinti, F., Umbro, I., D'Alessandro, M., Lai, S., Merli, M., Noce, A., et al. (2021). Cholemic Nephropathy as Cause of Acute and Chronic Kidney Disease. Update on an Under-Diagnosed Disease. LIFE, 11(11), 1200 [10.3390/life11111200].
|Tipologia:||Articolo su rivista|
|Citazione:||Tinti, F., Umbro, I., D'Alessandro, M., Lai, S., Merli, M., Noce, A., et al. (2021). Cholemic Nephropathy as Cause of Acute and Chronic Kidney Disease. Update on an Under-Diagnosed Disease. LIFE, 11(11), 1200 [10.3390/life11111200].|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/14|
|Revisione (peer review):||Esperti non anonimi|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11111200|
|Stato di pubblicazione:||Pubblicato|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2021|
|Titolo:||Cholemic Nephropathy as Cause of Acute and Chronic Kidney Disease. Update on an Under-Diagnosed Disease|
|Autori:||Tinti, F; Umbro, I; D'Alessandro, M; Lai, S; Merli, M; Noce, A; Di Daniele, N; Mazzaferro, S; Mitterhofer, A|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su rivista|