Exercise is increasingly recommended as a supportive therapy for people with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS). While clinical research has still not disclosed the real benefits of exercise on MS disease, animal studies suggest a substantial beneficial effect on motor disability and pathological hallmarks such as central and peripheral dysregulated immune response. The hippocampus, a core area for memory formation and learning, is a brain region involved in MS pathophysiology. Human and rodent studies suggest that the hippocampus is highly sensitive to the effects of exercise, the impact of which on MS hippocampal damage is still elusive.Here we addressed the effects of chronic voluntary exercise on hippocampal function and damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), animal model of MS. Mice were housed in standard or wheel equipped cages starting from the day of immunization and throughout the disease course. Although running activity was reduced during the symptomatic phase, exercise significantly ameliorated motor disability. Exercise improved cognition that was assessed through the novel object recognition test and the nest building in pre symptomatic and acute stages of the disease, respectively. In the acute phase exercise was shown to prevent EAEinduced synaptic plasticity abnormalities in the CA1 area, by promoting the survival of parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons and by attenuating inflammation. Indeed, exercise significantly reduced microgliosis in the CA1 area, the expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in microglia and, to a lesser extent, the hippocampal level of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), previously shown to contribute to aberrant synaptic plasticity in the EAE hippocampus. Notably, exercise exerted a precocious and long-lasting mitigating effect on microgliosis that preceded its neuroprotective action, likely underlying the improved cognitive function observed in both pre symptomatic and acute phase EAE mice.Overall, these data provide evidence that regular exercise improves cognitive function and synaptic and neuronal pathology that typically affect EAE/MS brains.

Rizzo, F.R., Guadalupi, L., Sanna, K., Vanni, V., Fresegna, D., De Vito, F., et al. (2021). Exercise protects from hippocampal inflammation and neurodegeneration in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. BRAIN, BEHAVIOR, AND IMMUNITY, 98, 13-27-27 [10.1016/j.bbi.2021.08.212].

Exercise protects from hippocampal inflammation and neurodegeneration in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

Rizzo, Francesca Romana;Vanni, Valentina;Fresegna, Diego;Musella, Alessandra;Caioli, Silvia;Bullitta, Silvia;Bruno, Antonio;Buttari, Fabio;Centonze, Diego;Gentile, Antonietta
2021-11

Abstract

Exercise is increasingly recommended as a supportive therapy for people with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS). While clinical research has still not disclosed the real benefits of exercise on MS disease, animal studies suggest a substantial beneficial effect on motor disability and pathological hallmarks such as central and peripheral dysregulated immune response. The hippocampus, a core area for memory formation and learning, is a brain region involved in MS pathophysiology. Human and rodent studies suggest that the hippocampus is highly sensitive to the effects of exercise, the impact of which on MS hippocampal damage is still elusive.Here we addressed the effects of chronic voluntary exercise on hippocampal function and damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), animal model of MS. Mice were housed in standard or wheel equipped cages starting from the day of immunization and throughout the disease course. Although running activity was reduced during the symptomatic phase, exercise significantly ameliorated motor disability. Exercise improved cognition that was assessed through the novel object recognition test and the nest building in pre symptomatic and acute stages of the disease, respectively. In the acute phase exercise was shown to prevent EAEinduced synaptic plasticity abnormalities in the CA1 area, by promoting the survival of parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons and by attenuating inflammation. Indeed, exercise significantly reduced microgliosis in the CA1 area, the expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in microglia and, to a lesser extent, the hippocampal level of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), previously shown to contribute to aberrant synaptic plasticity in the EAE hippocampus. Notably, exercise exerted a precocious and long-lasting mitigating effect on microgliosis that preceded its neuroprotective action, likely underlying the improved cognitive function observed in both pre symptomatic and acute phase EAE mice.Overall, these data provide evidence that regular exercise improves cognitive function and synaptic and neuronal pathology that typically affect EAE/MS brains.
Pubblicato
Rilevanza internazionale
Articolo
Esperti anonimi
Settore MED/26
eng
Con Impact Factor ISI
Inflammation
Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β)
Long term potentiation (LTP)
Microglia
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Neurodegeneration
Parvalbumin-positive (PV+) GABAergic interneuron
Synaptic plasticity
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
Voluntary running wheel
https://reader.elsevier.com/reader/sd/pii/S088915912100502X?token=0B9777A02F766A0A5FAEAC621EEC4B3B93ACD21E337E2A8D891B5AFD36E9AC3010104C8EF3F9D46892FC639445BD14A7&originRegion=eu-west-1&originCreation=20211201093011
Rizzo, F.R., Guadalupi, L., Sanna, K., Vanni, V., Fresegna, D., De Vito, F., et al. (2021). Exercise protects from hippocampal inflammation and neurodegeneration in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. BRAIN, BEHAVIOR, AND IMMUNITY, 98, 13-27-27 [10.1016/j.bbi.2021.08.212].
Rizzo, Fr; Guadalupi, L; Sanna, K; Vanni, V; Fresegna, D; De Vito, F; Musella, A; Caioli, S; Balletta, S; Bullitta, S; Bruno, A; Dolcetti, E; Stampanoni Bassi, M; Buttari, F; Gilio, L; Mandolesi, G; Centonze, D; Gentile, A
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2108/282257
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