Impaired thyroid hormone availability during early pregnancy is associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The main cause of thyroid dysfunction is thyroid-related autoimmunity (TAI), characterized by a significantly higher serum level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) compared to that of women without thyroid autoimmunity. TAI is associated with a significantly increased risk of miscarriage, and the incidence of TAI in women experiencing RM is higher compared to normal fertile women. In the present study, we have performed a retrospective analysis comparing the ability to conceive, the number of miscarriages and full-term pregnancies between 227 euthyroid women with autoimmune thyroid disease affected by RM and treated with levothyroxine (LT4) as adjuvant therapy, and a control group of 230 untreated women. We have observed a significant improvement of full-term pregnancies in treated women (59%) compared to untreated women (13%, p < 0.0001). Compared to the control group, treated women had a lower percentage of miscarriages (12% vs. 30%) and improved capacity to conceive (57% vs. 29%). Using age as a variable, the outcome in women younger than 35 years was not influenced by the LT4 therapy. Whereas, in women over 35 years, supplementation with LT4 significantly reduced the miscarriage rate (p < 0.05). We can conclude that a transient impairment of TH availability, not easily detectable before pregnancy, could be an important cause of RM in a subset of euthyroid women with autoimmune thyroid disease. This transient impairment may be reverted using adjuvant treatment with low doses of LT4.

Dal Lago, A., Galanti, F., Miriello, D., Marcoccia, A., Massimiani, M., Campagnolo, L., et al. (2021). Positive impact of levothyroxine treatment on pregnancy outcome in euthyroid women with thyroid autoimmunity affected by recurrent miscarriage. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE, 10(10), 2105 [10.3390/jcm10102105].

Positive impact of levothyroxine treatment on pregnancy outcome in euthyroid women with thyroid autoimmunity affected by recurrent miscarriage

Massimiani M.;Campagnolo L.;Moretti C.;
2021-05-13

Abstract

Impaired thyroid hormone availability during early pregnancy is associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The main cause of thyroid dysfunction is thyroid-related autoimmunity (TAI), characterized by a significantly higher serum level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) compared to that of women without thyroid autoimmunity. TAI is associated with a significantly increased risk of miscarriage, and the incidence of TAI in women experiencing RM is higher compared to normal fertile women. In the present study, we have performed a retrospective analysis comparing the ability to conceive, the number of miscarriages and full-term pregnancies between 227 euthyroid women with autoimmune thyroid disease affected by RM and treated with levothyroxine (LT4) as adjuvant therapy, and a control group of 230 untreated women. We have observed a significant improvement of full-term pregnancies in treated women (59%) compared to untreated women (13%, p < 0.0001). Compared to the control group, treated women had a lower percentage of miscarriages (12% vs. 30%) and improved capacity to conceive (57% vs. 29%). Using age as a variable, the outcome in women younger than 35 years was not influenced by the LT4 therapy. Whereas, in women over 35 years, supplementation with LT4 significantly reduced the miscarriage rate (p < 0.05). We can conclude that a transient impairment of TH availability, not easily detectable before pregnancy, could be an important cause of RM in a subset of euthyroid women with autoimmune thyroid disease. This transient impairment may be reverted using adjuvant treatment with low doses of LT4.
Pubblicato
Rilevanza internazionale
Articolo
Esperti anonimi
Settore BIO/17
English
levothyroxine, thyroid
recurrent miscarriage
pregnancy
euthyroid women
thyroid autoimmunity
Dal Lago, A., Galanti, F., Miriello, D., Marcoccia, A., Massimiani, M., Campagnolo, L., et al. (2021). Positive impact of levothyroxine treatment on pregnancy outcome in euthyroid women with thyroid autoimmunity affected by recurrent miscarriage. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE, 10(10), 2105 [10.3390/jcm10102105].
Dal Lago, A; Galanti, F; Miriello, D; Marcoccia, A; Massimiani, M; Campagnolo, L; Moretti, C; Rago, R
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2108/279011
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