The myelin sheath wraps around axons, allowing saltatory currents to be transmitted along neurons. Several genetic, viral, or environmental factors can damage the central nervous system (CNS) myelin sheath during life. Unless the myelin sheath is repaired, these insults will lead to neurodegeneration. Remyelination occurs spontaneously upon myelin injury in healthy individuals but can fail in several demyelination pathologies or as a consequence of aging. Thus, pharmacological intervention that promotes CNS remyelination could have a major impact on patient's lives by delaying or even preventing neurodegeneration. Drugs promoting CNS remyelination in animal models have been identified recently, mostly as a result of repurposing phenotypical screening campaigns that used novel oligodendrocyte cellular models. Although none of these have as yet arrived in the clinic, promising candidates are on the way. Many questions remain. Among the most relevant is the question if there is a time window when remyelination drugs should be administrated and why adult remyelination fails in many neurodegenerative pathologies. Moreover, a significant challenge in the field is how to reconstitute the oligodendrocyte/axon interaction environment representative of healthy as well as disease microenvironments in drug screening campaigns, so that drugs can be screened in the most appropriate disease-relevant conditions. Here we will provide an overview of how the field of in vitro models developed over recent years and recent biological findings about how oligodendrocytes mature after reactivation of their staminal niche. These data have posed novel questions and opened new views about how the adult brain is repaired after myelin injury and we will discuss how these new findings might change future drug screening campaigns for CNS regenerative drugs.

Balestri, S., Del Giovane, A., Sposato, C., Ferrarelli, M., Ragnini, A. (2021). The current challenges for drug discovery in CNS remyelination. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, 22(6), 1-30 [10.3390/ijms22062891].

The current challenges for drug discovery in CNS remyelination

Ragnini Antonella
2021-03-12

Abstract

The myelin sheath wraps around axons, allowing saltatory currents to be transmitted along neurons. Several genetic, viral, or environmental factors can damage the central nervous system (CNS) myelin sheath during life. Unless the myelin sheath is repaired, these insults will lead to neurodegeneration. Remyelination occurs spontaneously upon myelin injury in healthy individuals but can fail in several demyelination pathologies or as a consequence of aging. Thus, pharmacological intervention that promotes CNS remyelination could have a major impact on patient's lives by delaying or even preventing neurodegeneration. Drugs promoting CNS remyelination in animal models have been identified recently, mostly as a result of repurposing phenotypical screening campaigns that used novel oligodendrocyte cellular models. Although none of these have as yet arrived in the clinic, promising candidates are on the way. Many questions remain. Among the most relevant is the question if there is a time window when remyelination drugs should be administrated and why adult remyelination fails in many neurodegenerative pathologies. Moreover, a significant challenge in the field is how to reconstitute the oligodendrocyte/axon interaction environment representative of healthy as well as disease microenvironments in drug screening campaigns, so that drugs can be screened in the most appropriate disease-relevant conditions. Here we will provide an overview of how the field of in vitro models developed over recent years and recent biological findings about how oligodendrocytes mature after reactivation of their staminal niche. These data have posed novel questions and opened new views about how the adult brain is repaired after myelin injury and we will discuss how these new findings might change future drug screening campaigns for CNS regenerative drugs.
Pubblicato
Rilevanza internazionale
Articolo
Esperti anonimi
Settore BIO/10
English
Con Impact Factor ISI
3d scaffolds; drug screen; microfibers; oligodendrocytes; remyelination
Grant support Mission Sustainability: Tissue engineering to study myelination processes"/Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata; Antonella Ragnini = Antonella Ragnini-Wilson
https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/22/6/2891
Balestri, S., Del Giovane, A., Sposato, C., Ferrarelli, M., Ragnini, A. (2021). The current challenges for drug discovery in CNS remyelination. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, 22(6), 1-30 [10.3390/ijms22062891].
Balestri, S; Del Giovane, A; Sposato, C; Ferrarelli, M; Ragnini, A
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2108/276759
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