ObjectiveThere are no comprehensive surveys relating the reported high prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in athletes to comorbidities and immune changes associated with intense chronic exercise. This 12-year survey aims to evaluate several clinical, functional and immunological parameters in order to assess features, trend and burden of asthma, allergy, infections and autoimmune diseases, in a large homogeneous population of Olympic athletes.MethodsSix hundred and fifty-nine Italian Olympic athletes were studied through four cross-sectional surveys performed between 2000 and 2012 before the Summer and Winter Olympics. Clinical diagnosis of allergic, autoimmune and infectious diseases was complemented by: skin-prick tests (n=569); pulmonary function tests (n=415); total (n=158) and specific (n=72) serum IgE; serum autoantibodies (n=30), cytokines and growth factors (n=92); flow cytometry (n=135).ResultsThe prevalence of asthma and/or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction was 14.7%, with a significant increase (P=0.04) from 2000 (11.3%) to 2008 (17.2%). The prevalence of rhinitis, conjunctivitis, skin allergic diseases and anaphylaxis was 26.2%, 20.0%, 14.8% and 1.1%, respectively. Sensitization to inhalant allergens was documented in 49.0% of athletes, being 32.7% in 2000 and 56.5% in 2008 (P<0.0001). Food, drug and venom allergy was present in 7.1%, 5.0% and 2.1% of athletes, respectively. The high prevalence of asthma and allergy was associated with recurrent upper respiratory tract (10.3%) and herpes (18.2%) infections, an abnormal T cell subset profile and a general down-regulation of serum cytokines with a significantly lower IFN-/IL-4 ratio.ConclusionA chronic and intense physical exercise may cause a transient immunodepression with a preferential shift to a Th2 response, associated with abnormalities of the respiratory tract.
Bonini, M., Gramiccioni, C., Fioretti, D., Ruckert, B., Rinaldi, M., Akdis, C., et al. (2015). Asthma, allergy and the olympics: A 12-year survey in elite athletes. CURRENT OPINION IN ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, 15(2), 184-192.
|Tipologia:||Articolo su rivista|
|Citazione:||Bonini, M., Gramiccioni, C., Fioretti, D., Ruckert, B., Rinaldi, M., Akdis, C., et al. (2015). Asthma, allergy and the olympics: A 12-year survey in elite athletes. CURRENT OPINION IN ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, 15(2), 184-192.|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/07|
|Revisione (peer review):||Esperti anonimi|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000149|
|Stato di pubblicazione:||Pubblicato|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Titolo:||Asthma, allergy and the olympics: A 12-year survey in elite athletes|
|Autori:||Bonini, M; Gramiccioni, C; Fioretti, D; Ruckert, B; Rinaldi, M; Akdis, C; Todaro, A; Palange, P; Carlsen, K-; Pelliccia, A; Rasi, G; Bonini, S; AIDA,|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su rivista|