Osteochondral tissue is a biphasic material comprised of articular cartilage integrated atop subchondral bone. Damage to this tissue is highly problematic, owing to its intrinsic inability to regenerate functional tissue in response to trauma or disease. Further, the function of the tissue is largely conferred by its compartmentalized zonal microstructure and composition. Current clinical treatments fail to regenerate new tissue that recapitulates this zonal structure. Consequently, regenerated tissue often lacks long-term stability. To address this growing problem, we propose the development of tissue engineered biomaterials that mimic the zonal cartilage organization and extracellular matrix composition through the use of a microfluidic printing head bearing a mixing unit and incorporated into an extrusion-based bioprinter. The system is devised so that multiple bioinks can be delivered either individually or at the same time and rapidly mixed to the extrusion head, and finally deposited through a coaxial nozzle. This enables the deposition of either layers or continuous gradients of chemical, mechanical and biological cues and fabrication of scaffolds with very high shape fidelity and cell viability. Using such a system we bioprinted cell-laden hydrogel constructs recapitulating the layered structure of cartilage, namely, hyaline and calcified cartilage. The construct was assembled out of two bioinks specifically formulated to mimic the extracellular matrices present in the targeted tissues and to ensure the desired biological response of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) and human articular chondrocytes (hACs). Homogeneous and gradient constructs were thoroughly characterized in vitro with respect to long-term cell viability and expression of hyaline and hypertrophic markers by means of realtime quantitative PCR and immunocytochemical staining. After 21 days of in vitro culture, we observed production of zone-specific matrix. The PCR analysis demonstrated upregulated expression of hypertrophic markers in the homogenous equivalent of calcified cartilage but not in the gradient heterogeneous construct. The regenerative potential was assessed in vivo in a rat model. The histological analysis of surgically damaged rat trochlea revealed beneficial effect of the bioprinted scaffolds on regeneration of osteochondral defect when compared to untreated control.

Idaszek, J., Costantini, M., Karlsen, T.A., Jaroszewicz, J., Colosi, C., Testa, S., et al. (2019). 3D bioprinting of hydrogel constructs with cell and material gradients for the regeneration of full-thickness chondral defect using a microfluidic printing head. BIOFABRICATION, 11(4) [10.1088/1758-5090/ab2622].

3D bioprinting of hydrogel constructs with cell and material gradients for the regeneration of full-thickness chondral defect using a microfluidic printing head

Testa, Stefano;Bernardini, Sergio;Cannata, Stefano;Gargioli, Cesare;
2019-05-31

Abstract

Osteochondral tissue is a biphasic material comprised of articular cartilage integrated atop subchondral bone. Damage to this tissue is highly problematic, owing to its intrinsic inability to regenerate functional tissue in response to trauma or disease. Further, the function of the tissue is largely conferred by its compartmentalized zonal microstructure and composition. Current clinical treatments fail to regenerate new tissue that recapitulates this zonal structure. Consequently, regenerated tissue often lacks long-term stability. To address this growing problem, we propose the development of tissue engineered biomaterials that mimic the zonal cartilage organization and extracellular matrix composition through the use of a microfluidic printing head bearing a mixing unit and incorporated into an extrusion-based bioprinter. The system is devised so that multiple bioinks can be delivered either individually or at the same time and rapidly mixed to the extrusion head, and finally deposited through a coaxial nozzle. This enables the deposition of either layers or continuous gradients of chemical, mechanical and biological cues and fabrication of scaffolds with very high shape fidelity and cell viability. Using such a system we bioprinted cell-laden hydrogel constructs recapitulating the layered structure of cartilage, namely, hyaline and calcified cartilage. The construct was assembled out of two bioinks specifically formulated to mimic the extracellular matrices present in the targeted tissues and to ensure the desired biological response of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) and human articular chondrocytes (hACs). Homogeneous and gradient constructs were thoroughly characterized in vitro with respect to long-term cell viability and expression of hyaline and hypertrophic markers by means of realtime quantitative PCR and immunocytochemical staining. After 21 days of in vitro culture, we observed production of zone-specific matrix. The PCR analysis demonstrated upregulated expression of hypertrophic markers in the homogenous equivalent of calcified cartilage but not in the gradient heterogeneous construct. The regenerative potential was assessed in vivo in a rat model. The histological analysis of surgically damaged rat trochlea revealed beneficial effect of the bioprinted scaffolds on regeneration of osteochondral defect when compared to untreated control.
Pubblicato
Rilevanza internazionale
Articolo
Esperti anonimi
Settore BIO/06
Settore BIO/13
eng
Multimaterial bioprinting; calcified cartilage; continuous gradient; heterogeneous tissue; instructive bioink; mesenchymal stem cells; osteochondral defect
Idaszek, J., Costantini, M., Karlsen, T.A., Jaroszewicz, J., Colosi, C., Testa, S., et al. (2019). 3D bioprinting of hydrogel constructs with cell and material gradients for the regeneration of full-thickness chondral defect using a microfluidic printing head. BIOFABRICATION, 11(4) [10.1088/1758-5090/ab2622].
Idaszek, J; Costantini, M; Karlsen, Ta; Jaroszewicz, J; Colosi, C; Testa, S; Fornetti, E; Bernardini, S; Podobińska, M; Kasarełło, K; Wrzesień, R; Cannata, S; Barbetta, A; Gargioli, C; Brinchmann, Je; Święszkowski, W
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2108/214743
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