Nowadays, the most powerful supercomputers in the world, needed for solving complex models and simulations of critical scientific problems, are able to perform tens of quadrillion (1015) floating point operations per second (tens of PetaFLOPS). Although such big amount of computational power may seem enough, scientists and engineers always need to solve more accurate models, run broader simulations and analyze huge amount of data in less time. In particular, experiments that are currently impossible, dangerous, or too expensive to be realized, can be accurately simulated by solving complex predictive models on an exascale machine (1018 FLOPS). A few examples of studies where the exascale computing can make a difference are: reduction of the carbon footprint of the transportation sector, innovative designs for cost-effective renewable energy resources, efficiency and safety of nuclear energy, reverse engineering of the human brain, design, control and manufacture of advanced materials. The importance of having an exascale supercomputer has been officially acknowledged on July 29th, 2015 by President Obama, who signed an executive order creating a National Strategic Computing Initiative calling for the accelerated development of an exascale system. Unfortunately, building an exascale system with the technology we currently use on petascale machines would represent an unaffordable project. Although the cost of the processing units is so inexpensive as to be considered as free, the energy required for moving data (from memories to processors and across the network) and to power-on the entire system (including the cooling system) represents the real limit for reaching the exascale era. Therefore, deep changes in hardware architectures, programming models and parallel algorithms are needed in order to reduce energy requirements and increase compute power. In this dissertation, we face the challanges related to data transfers on exascale architectures, proposing solutions in the field of heterogeneous architectures (CPUs + Accelerators), parallel programming models and parallel algorithms. In particular, we first explore the potential benefits brought by a hybrid CPUs+GPUs approach for sparse matrix computations, then we implement and analyze the performance of coar- VII ray Fortran as parallel programming system for exascale computing. Finally, we merge the world of accelerators and coarray Fortran in order to create a data-aware parallel programming model, suitable for exascale computing. The implementation of OpenCoarrays, the open-source communication library used by GNU Fortran for supporting coarrays, and its usage on heterogeneous devices, are the most relevant contributions presented in this dissertation.

(2014). Parallel programming techniques for heterogeneous exascale computing platforms.

Parallel programming techniques for heterogeneous exascale computing platforms

FANFARILLO, ALESSANDRO
2014-01-01

Abstract

Nowadays, the most powerful supercomputers in the world, needed for solving complex models and simulations of critical scientific problems, are able to perform tens of quadrillion (1015) floating point operations per second (tens of PetaFLOPS). Although such big amount of computational power may seem enough, scientists and engineers always need to solve more accurate models, run broader simulations and analyze huge amount of data in less time. In particular, experiments that are currently impossible, dangerous, or too expensive to be realized, can be accurately simulated by solving complex predictive models on an exascale machine (1018 FLOPS). A few examples of studies where the exascale computing can make a difference are: reduction of the carbon footprint of the transportation sector, innovative designs for cost-effective renewable energy resources, efficiency and safety of nuclear energy, reverse engineering of the human brain, design, control and manufacture of advanced materials. The importance of having an exascale supercomputer has been officially acknowledged on July 29th, 2015 by President Obama, who signed an executive order creating a National Strategic Computing Initiative calling for the accelerated development of an exascale system. Unfortunately, building an exascale system with the technology we currently use on petascale machines would represent an unaffordable project. Although the cost of the processing units is so inexpensive as to be considered as free, the energy required for moving data (from memories to processors and across the network) and to power-on the entire system (including the cooling system) represents the real limit for reaching the exascale era. Therefore, deep changes in hardware architectures, programming models and parallel algorithms are needed in order to reduce energy requirements and increase compute power. In this dissertation, we face the challanges related to data transfers on exascale architectures, proposing solutions in the field of heterogeneous architectures (CPUs + Accelerators), parallel programming models and parallel algorithms. In particular, we first explore the potential benefits brought by a hybrid CPUs+GPUs approach for sparse matrix computations, then we implement and analyze the performance of coar- VII ray Fortran as parallel programming system for exascale computing. Finally, we merge the world of accelerators and coarray Fortran in order to create a data-aware parallel programming model, suitable for exascale computing. The implementation of OpenCoarrays, the open-source communication library used by GNU Fortran for supporting coarrays, and its usage on heterogeneous devices, are the most relevant contributions presented in this dissertation.
2014/2015
Computer science, control and geoinformation
28.
Settore ING-INF/05 - Sistemi di Elaborazione delle Informazioni
Settore ING-INF/03 - Telecomunicazioni
English
Tesi di dottorato
(2014). Parallel programming techniques for heterogeneous exascale computing platforms.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2108/202339
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