There is evidence of adverse health impacts from human exposure to particulate air pollution, including increased rates of respiratory and cardiovascular illness, hospitalizations, and pre-mature mortality. Most recent hypotheses assign an important role to ultrafine particles (UFP) (<0.1 μm) and to associated transition metals (in particular Fe). In a large city like Rome, where many active people spend more than one hour per day in private or public transportation, it may be important to evaluate the level of exposure to harmful pollutants which occurs during urban travelling. In this context, the aim of this work was to examine the relative contribution of different transport modes to total daily exposure. We performed experimental measurements during both morning and evening traffic peak hours throughout the winter season (December 2013-March 2014), for a total of 98 trips. Our results suggest that the lowest UFP exposures are experienced by underground train commuters, with an average number concentration of 14 134 cm(-3), and are largely a reflection of the routes being at greater distance from vehicular traffic. Motorcyclists experienced significantly higher average concentrations (73 168 cm(-3)) than all other exposure classes, and this is most likely a result of the presence of high-concentration and short-duration peaks which do not occur when the same routes are traveled by car. UFP concentrations in subway train environments were found to be comparable to urban background levels. Still, in underground trains we found the highest values of PM10 mass concentration with a maximum value of 422 μg/m(3). PM10 concentration in trains was found to be four and two times higher than what was measured in car and motorbike trips, respectively. Transport mode contribution to total integrated UFP daily exposure was found to be 16.3%-20.9% while travelling by car, 28.7% for motorbike trips, and 8.7% for subway trips. Due to lower exposure times, commuting by car and motorbike is comparable to other daily activities in terms of exposure. Our data can provide relevant information for transport decision-making and increase environmental awareness in the hope that the information about inhaled pollutants can translate into a more rational approach to urban travelling.
Grana, M., Toschi, N., Vicentini, L., Pietroiusti, A., & Magrini, A. (2017). Exposure to ultrafine particles in different transport modes in the city of Rome. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, 228, 201-210 [10.1016/j.envpol.2017.05.032].
|Tipologia:||Articolo su rivista|
|Citazione:||Grana, M., Toschi, N., Vicentini, L., Pietroiusti, A., & Magrini, A. (2017). Exposure to ultrafine particles in different transport modes in the city of Rome. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, 228, 201-210 [10.1016/j.envpol.2017.05.032].|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/44 - Medicina del Lavoro|
|Revisione (peer review):||Sì, ma tipo non specificato|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.05.032|
|Stato di pubblicazione:||Pubblicato|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Titolo:||Exposure to ultrafine particles in different transport modes in the city of Rome|
|Autori:||Grana, M; Toschi, N; Vicentini, L; Pietroiusti, A; Magrini, A|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su rivista|