Pure scheelite (CaWO4) and carbon black mixtures, containing 0 or 2 wt% cobalt or nickel were prepared by 8 or 24 h planetary ball milling (PBM). The mixtures were studied by thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), isothermal annealing at 950, 1000 and 1100 °C, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Independently of the presence of transition metal (Co or Ni), the carbothermic reaction occurs through several steps, where the Ca:O atomic ratio goes from 1:4 to 1:1 according to the sequence: CaWO4 → Ca3WO6 → CaO, with concomitant development of gaseous CO and formation of metal tungsten. Finally, tungsten is carburized to give nanostructured WC. For the first time we here show that Co and Ni have a noteworthy catalytic effect on the carbothermic reduction of CaWO4. In particular, these transition metals catalyze both the two-step reduction of scheelite and the subsequent carburization of tungsten. In the latter case, formation of intermediate η phases (MexWyCz, with Me = Co or Ni) occurs. Doping with Co or Ni allows obtaining an almost quantitative (97%) conversion of scheelite into WC after 12 h at a temperature as low as 950 °C. The catalyst allows to reduce PBM duration as well, in that doped mixtures subjected to just 8 h PBM give WC yields larger than 90% after 1 h at 1100 °C, being W2C the balance. The doping of CaWO4:C mixtures with few weight percent of Co or Ni allows to produce nanostructured WC by reducing both the milling time and the annealing temperature. These results are particularly appealing from both industrial and sustainability point of view since they allow performing less energy-intensive syntheses of nanostructured WC powders from scheelite.
Palmieri, E., Marcucci, A., Marcheselli, G., De Stefanis, A., & Polini, R. (2016). Carbothermic reduction of scheelite (CaWO4) doped with cobalt or nickel. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REFRACTORY METALS AND HARD MATERIALS, 59, 93-99.
|Tipologia:||Articolo su rivista|
|Citazione:||Palmieri, E., Marcucci, A., Marcheselli, G., De Stefanis, A., & Polini, R. (2016). Carbothermic reduction of scheelite (CaWO4) doped with cobalt or nickel. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REFRACTORY METALS AND HARD MATERIALS, 59, 93-99.|
|IF:||Con Impact Factor ISI|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore CHIM/03 - Chimica Generale e Inorganica|
|Revisione (peer review):||Esperti anonimi|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2016.05.018|
|Stato di pubblicazione:||Pubblicato|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Titolo:||Carbothermic reduction of scheelite (CaWO4) doped with cobalt or nickel|
|Autori:||Palmieri, E; Marcucci, A; Marcheselli, G; De Stefanis, A; Polini, R|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su rivista|