The S-100 is a group of low molecular weight (10-12 kD) calcium-binding proteins highly conserved among vertebrates. It is present in different tissues as dimers of homologous or different subunits (alpha, beta). In the nervous system, the S-100 exists as a mixture composed of beta beta and alpha beta dimers with the monomer beta represented more often. Its intracellular localisation is mainly restricted to the glial cytoplasmic compartment with a small fraction bound to membranes. In this compartment the S-100 acts as a potent inhibitor of phosphorylation on several substrates including the synaptosomal C-Kinase and Tau, a microtubule-associated protein. The S-100 in particular conditions, after binding with specific membrane sites (Kd = 0.2 microM; Bmax = 4.5 nM), is able to modify the activity of adenylate cyclase, probably via G-proteins. In addition, the Ca2+ homeostasis is also modulated by S-100 via an increase of specific membrane conductance and/or Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. "In vitro" and "in vivo" experiments showed that lower (nM) concentrations of extracellular S-100 beta act on glial and neuronal cells as a growth-differentiating factor. On the other hand, higher concentrations of the protein induce apoptosis of some cells such as the sympathetic-like PC12 line. Finally, data obtained from physiological (development, ageing) or pathological (dementia associated with Down's syndrome, Alzheimer's disease) conditions showed that a relationship could be established between the S-100 levels and some aspects of the statii.
|Tipologia:||Articolo su rivista|
|Citazione:||Fanò, G., Biocca, S., Fulle, S., Mariggiò, M.a., Belia, S., & Calissano, P. (1995). The S-100: a protein family in search of a function. PROGRESS IN NEUROBIOLOGY, 46(1), 71-82.|
|IF:||Con Impact Factor ISI|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/12 - Biochimica Clinica e Biologia Molecolare Clinica|
|Revisione (peer review):||Esperti anonimi|
|Stato di pubblicazione:||Pubblicato|
|Data di pubblicazione:||mag-1995|
|Titolo:||The S-100: a protein family in search of a function|
|Autori interni:||BIOCCA, SILVIA |
|Autori:||Fanò, G; Biocca, S; Fulle, S; Mariggiò, Ma; Belia, S; Calissano, P|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su rivista|
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